Bees (Apoidea: Anthophila) form a monophyletic group of at least 100 Myrs old including today approximately 19667 described species (Ascher, J. S. & J. Pickering. 2010). Due to their strong relationship with flowering plants they play a crucial role for most terrestrial ecosystems providing pollination services for a big number of angiosperms. 

The European fauna counts 2048 species of bees with 69 genera (Polaszek, 2005) most of them being present in the xeric ecosystems of Mediterranean region.


A percentage of 9.2% of bees (of 1965 analyzed species) are considered threatened in all of Europe (Nieto et all, 2015).

A high proportion of threatened bee species are endemic to Europe (20.4%, 400 species) highlighting the responsibility that European countries have to protect the global populations of these species.

The species richness of bees increases from north to south in Europe, with the highest species richness being found in the Mediterranean climate zone. In particular, the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas are important areas of species richness. Regarding the distribution of endemic species, southern Europe shows the highest concentration of endemism.

The main threat to European bees is habitat loss as a result of agriculture intensification (e.g.,changes in agricultural practices including the use of pesticides and fertilizes), urban development, increased frequency of fires and climate change.

The number of bees recorded in Romanian fauna during a period of 150 years is over 700 species. 
Due to the Romania’s position at the confluence between pannonic, continental, alpine, steppe and pontic (around the Black Sea) biogeographical regions (EEA, 2001) fauna include species with various origins and distribution. Thus, the Romanian bee fauna must presumably be rich and divers and the presence of more species cannot be excluded mostly from the south of the country.

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